Investment in infrastructure and innovation are crucial drivers of economic growth and development. With over half the world population now living in cities, mass transport and renewable energy are becoming ever more important, as are the growth of new industries and information and communication technologies.
Technological progress is also key to finding lasting solutions to both economic and environmental challenges, such as providing new jobs and promoting energy efficiency.
Promoting sustainable industries, and investing in scientific research and innovation, are all important ways to facilitate sustainable development.
More than 4 billion people still do not have access to the Internet, and 90 percent are from the developing world. Bridging this digital divide is crucial to ensure equal access to information and knowledge, as well as foster innovation and entrepreneurship.
Facts and Figures
Gross Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) as a percentage of GDP grew from less than 0.02% in the 1990s to 0.35% in 2016
750 full-time equivalent personnel in R&D – 350 are full-time equivalent researchers
Indicators and Results
9.1 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and trans border infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all.
9.1.1 Proportion of the rural population who live within 2 km of an all-season road
National Definition – Percentage of Agricultural Households who live within 2km of an all year gravel road
9.1.2 Passenger and freight volumes, by mode of transport
National Definition –
9.2 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries.
9.2.1 Manufacturing value added as a proportion of GDP and per capita
National Definition – Manufacturing sector contribution to GDP (current prices)
9.2.2 Manufacturing employment as a proportion of total employment
National Definition – UN SDG Definition
9.3 Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets.
9.3.1 Proportion of small-scale industries in total industry value added
National Definition –
- Small (5-19)
- Medium (20- 99)
- Large (>100)
9.3.2 Proportion of small-scale industries with a loan or line of credit
National Definition – Firms (formal) with bank loan / line of credit (small, medium, large enterprises)