Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
End poverty in all its forms everywhere

Human life depends on the earth as much as the ocean for our sustenance and livelihoods. Plant life provides 80 percent of the human diet, and we rely on agriculture as an important economic resources. Forests cover 30 percent of the Earth’s surface, provide vital habitats for millions of species, and important sources for clean air and water, as well as being crucial for combating climate change.

Every year, 13 million hectares of forests are lost, while the persistent degradation of drylands has led to the desertification of 3.6 billion hectares, disproportionately affecting poor communities.

While 15 percent of land is protected, biodiversity is still at risk. Nearly 7,000 species of animals and plants have been illegally traded. Wildlife trafficking not only erodes biodiversity, but creates insecurity, fuels conflict, and feeds corruption.

Urgent action must be taken to reduce the loss of natural habitats and biodiversity which are part of our common heritage and support global food and water security, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and peace and security.

Facts and Figures


44% of the land mass under conservation management


Community participation contributed to the increase of Conservancies from 66 in 2012 to 83 in 2017


5,808 jobs in 2014 & NAD 91.2 million of local communities’ benefits

Challenges: fire, human wildlife conflicts and illegal

Indicators and Results

15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements.

  • a)
  • b)

15.1.1 Forest area as a proportion of total land area

National Definition – a) UN SDG Definition b) Tree Covered Area

  • a)
  • b)

15.1.2 Proportion of important sites for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, by ecosystem type

National Definition – a) Proportion of important sites for freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas b) Proportion of important sites for terrestrial biodiversity that are covered by protected areas

15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally.

  • c)

15.2.1 Progress towards sustainable forest management

National Definition – a) Forest Area under formal and sustainable Management b) Proportion of forest area within legally established protected areas c) Forest area certified under an independently verified certification scheme

15.3 By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world.

15.3.1 Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area

National Definition – As UN SDG Definition. Methodology according to UNCCCD good guidance document and ESA CCI LC

15.4 By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development.

15.4.1 Coverage by protected areas of important sites for mountain biodiversity

National Definition – Average proportion of Mountain Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) covered by protected areas)