Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
End poverty in all its forms everywhere

More than half of us  live in cities. By 2050, two-thirds of all humanity—6.5 billion people—will be urban. Sustainable development cannot be achieved without significantly transforming the way we build and manage our urban spaces.

The rapid growth of cities—a result of rising populations and increasing migration—has led to a boom in mega-cities, especially in the developing world, and slums are becoming a more significant feature of urban life.

Making cities sustainable means creating career and business opportunities, safe and affordable housing, and building resilient societies and economies. It involves investment in public transport, creating green public spaces, and improving urban planning and management in participatory and inclusive ways.

Facts and Figures


46.9% population currently lives in urban areas


53.1% lives in rural areas


19% of households in informal settlements (2016)

Urban Land Challenges: Limited municipal serviced land, high prices in urban land and properties.

Rural Land Challenges: Arid land, Water scarcity, Limited agricultural (crop and livestock) production

Indicators and Results

11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums.

  • (T) Town
  • (U) Urban
  • (R) Rural

11.1.1 Proportion of urban population living in slums, informal settlements or inadequate housing

National Definition – Proportion of improvised houses (shack)/ overall houses

11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons

  • (T) Town
  • (U) Urban
  • (R) Rural

11.2.1Proportion of population that has convenient access to public transport, by sex, age and persons with disabilities

National Definition – Percent of Households within a distance of less than 1km to public transport

11.3 By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries

11.3.1 Ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate

National Definition

11.3.2 Proportion of cities with a direct participation structure of civil society in urban planning and management that operate regularly and democratically

National Definition

11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage.

  • a)
  • b)
  • c)
  • d)
  • e)
  • f)
  • g)

11.4.1 Total expenditure (public and private) per capita spent on the preservation, protection and conservation of all cultural and natural heritage, by type of heritage (cultural, natural, mixed and World Heritage Centre designation), level of government (national, regional and local/municipal), type of expenditure (operating expenditure/investment) and type of private funding (donations in kind, private nonprofit sector and sponsorship)

National Definition – a) Total and b) Government c) Private d) GEF e) US Gov f) GER Gov g) WWF h) Others Real Biodiversity Expenditure per capita (in 2013 prices)