Reduce inequality within and among countries
End poverty in all its forms everywhere

Income inequality is on the rise—the richest 10 percent have up to 40 percent of global income whereas the poorest 10 percent earn only between 2 to 7 percent. If we take into account population growth inequality in developing countries, inequality has increased by 11 percent.

Income inequality has increased in nearly everywhere in recent decades, but at different speeds. It’s lowest in Europe and highest in the Middle East.

These widening disparities require sound policies to empower lower income earners, and promote economic inclusion of all regardless of sex, race or ethnicity.

Income inequality requires global solutions. This involves improving the regulation and monitoring of financial markets and institutions, encouraging development assistance and foreign direct investment to regions where the need is greatest. Facilitating the safe migration and mobility of people is also key to bridging the widening divide.

Facts and Figures


Namibia is classified as an Upper Middle Income Country, yet it is still one of the most unequal countries with a Gini coefficient of 0.560 in 2016


51 percent of women are employed in the informal sector -Global Gender Report


Public sector managerial positions a 43% (female) in relation to 57% (men)


55.4% of the San population has not attended formal education at all


Rural poverty at 34%

Indicators and Results

10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average.

  • a)
  • b)

10.1.1 Growth rates of household expenditure or income per capita among the bottom 40 per cent of the population and the total population

National Definition – a) Growth Rate of Household Expenditure per household among the bottom 40 percent of the population in relation to the overall growth rate. (inflation adjusted) b) Contribution to overall Expenditure by the bottom 40% households

10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status.

  • a)
  • b)

10.2.1 Proportion of people living below 50 per cent of median income, by sex, age and persons with disabilities

National Definition – a) Proportion of Population (Individuals) below 50% of Median Expenditure b) Parity Index Female/ Male out of the affected population

10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard.

10.3.1 Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law

National Definition

10.4 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality.

10.4.1 Labour share of GDP, comprising wages and social protection transfers

National Definition – Compensation of employees N$/ GDP (current market prices) N$